September 1, 1862
Marched toward Western Maryland and Pennsylvania.
September 3, 1862
At Leesburg Pike they harass the rear of the retreating Federal army capturing a wagon train which supplies the Confederates with guns, small arms, wagons, knapsacks, cartridge boxes, canteens, haversacks, blankets, overcoats camp kettles tin cups and every accoutrement of war March north averaging ten miles per day.
September 5, 1862
The regiment crossed over the Potomac River at White's Ford with the band serenading the troops with "Maryland, My Maryland".
September 6, 1862
Reached Buckeystown, and camped three miles south of Frederick on the banks of the Monocacy River in the vicinity of the B & O Railroad bridge. Here they rested for two days, bathing in the river and assisting in the destruction of the bridge.
September 9, 1862
Taking up their march again the regiment tramped northward through the Maryland countryside.
September 11, 1862
Leaving Frederick, marched north-west on the macadamized Washington Pike and passed through the Catoctin Mountains. During the next two days, the column marched through Turner's Gap in South Mountain to Boonsboro, and then through Funkstown to Hagerstown. Here, the Texas Brigade went into bivouac, about five miles below the Pennsylvania line.
September 12, 1862
Marched through Turner's Gap in South Mountain to Boonsboro, and then through Funkstown to Hagerstown. Went into bivouac, about five miles below the Pennsylvania line. The brigade has becoming quite ragged. No clothing or shoes have been furnished since Richmond. Many are barefoot. Lack of provisions have forced men to subsist on green apples and corn. But the men are in high spirits ready for battle.
September 14, 1862
The regiment was at Hagerstown just below the Pennsylvania border. Received orders to return to South Mountain. The Battle of South Mountain. Lieut Col. Work commanding. Hot dry day. Entire Brigade cheered to General Lee to "Give us Hood!" which he obliged. Began 10 mile march to Boonsboro, MD to aid of D.H. Hill who need help holding off a strong force including the Iron Brigade. A bayonet charge held the field until night fall. Retreated toward Sharpsburg seven miles away. No enemy pursuit that night.
September 15, 1862
Fell back west and south taking a position behind Antietam Creek near the village of Sharpsburg, Maryland. On this movement the regiment along with the Brigade again formed the rear guard. Men are finding it difficult to keep awake and moving
September 16, 1862
Marched 13 miles to Sharpsburg to concentration army around Sharpsburg. Took up position in an open field in front of a Dunker Church north of Sharpsburg. The regiment is involved in preliminary fighting at Sharpsburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. About an hour before sunset met a probe by Hooker’s Corps and fought a brief battle that caused the Yankees to retire. Rtired to a covered position and spent the night cooking the first rations that had been issued in several days.
September 17, 1862
The Battle of Sharpsburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. At 6:00 AM ordered to prepare to advance to support Lawton’s divsion in a cornfield North of the church. Reduced Hooker’s to shambles. Retired at about 9:00 A.M. and held in reserve for the rest of the day. The Wigfall flag was lost in the cornfield. When the Texas Brigade regrouped and counted their losses, it was determined that over 550 of the brigade’s 850 soldiers had been killed, wounded, or captured. The First Texas Infantry, advancing the farthest of any unit in the brigade, suffered a casualty rate of 82% of the 226 men engaged in the battle. The “Ragged Old First” lost their regimental colors as well. Historian John Cannon reports that when a Federal soldier later in the battle picked them up, he found thirteen Texans lying dead within arm’s reach of the Lone Star flag. The First Texas’ casualty rate at Antietam was the second-highest of the Civil War on either side.
September 18, 1862
Remained in battle positions during the day. That night the regiment crossed over the Potomac at Boteler's Ford near Shephardstown.
September 27, 1862
Moved to a location five miles northeast of Winchester. The brigade rested, recuperated, and reorganized for the remainder of the month for occasional drill and new uniforms and equipment. Pvt. McGee paroled from the Federals Still short of shoes. Food was ample.. Received mail since the first time leaving Richmond
September - October 1862
Went into camp 20 miles north of Winchester along the Opequan Creek in the Shenandoah Valley.
October 8, 1862
Longstreet deemed his command fit enough for a formal review. In full battle array, the men of the First Corps marched before a reviewing party that included Gen. Lee and many local dignitaries. The men proudly displayed their battle-torn colors in the parade.
October 10, 1862
Announced that Hood had been promoted to Major General. Henceforth, the formation is now known as Hood’s Division.
October 26, 1862
Broke camp at Winchester, VA begin march toward Culpeper Courthouse. Moved south passing through Winchester, Kerntown and Newtown. averaging 10 miles per day. Fall weather is very fine and nice for marching.
November 2, 1862
Turned east passed through the mountains at Manassas Gap.
November 5, 1862
The brigade moved to a new camp in the vicinity of the Cedar Mountain battlefield, about six miles south of Culpeper. At this time, the shortage of shoes in the Confederacy's quartermaster depots had become critical. Shoes smuggled through the Union blockade from England were shoddily made and soon wore out. General Longstreet attempted to remedy the situation by ordering that green hides be used, hairy side in, as for moccasin-type footwear. These ``Longstreet Moccasins'' were found to be impractical in the mud and slush of the Virginia roadsMarch toward Culpeper Courthouse Went into camp in the vicinity of Culpeper Court House.
November 7, 1862
The Inspector General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Col. Edwin J. Harvie, inspected the Texas Brigade and Maj. B. W. Frobel's three artillery batteries, including Capt. James Reilly's North Carolina Battery. Harvie noted that all five regiments of the Texas Brigade were badly clothed and shod, and 440 men (roughly one-third of the brigade at the time) were barefooted. The First Texas was the worst clothed, and only the Fifth Texas and Hampton's Legion presented their firearms in ``fine order.'' Reilly's Battery, on the other hand, impressed Harvie with the condition and appearance of its guns and men. Although Harvie blamed the regimental officers for the poor state of their men, Hood no doubt shared some of the blame for his lack of administrative attentiveness as division commander
November 19, 1862
The brigade left its Cedar Mountain camp and marched as the rear of Longstreet's force toward Fredericksburg. (Longstreet begain marching his corps in this direction on November 14, in response to a flanking maneuver by the Union Army of the Potomac, now under the command of Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside.) Following the Alexandria and Orange Railroad south, the Texas Brigade passed through Rapidan Station and Madison Court House to Orange Court House. Broke camp and marched toward Fredericksburg. roke camp and crossed over the Rapidan and bivouacked on the south bank of the river.
November 20 - 21, 1862
Marched 16 miles and camped near Spotsylvania Court House the night of the 21st.
November 22, 1862
Arrived Fredericksburg. . Despite a 60-mile march over muddy roads, the brigade completed the movement in four days. Received public charity in form of 500 pairs of socks and shoes, gloves, socks as well as wearing apparel.
November 26, 1862
The Eighteenth Georgia and Hampton's Legion were officially detached.. In their place were assigned the eleven companies of the Third Arkansas, formerly of John G. Walker's Division. The Third Arkansas, the only ``Razorback'' regiment in the Army of Northern Virginia, had now joined the only three Texas regiments in Lee's army. Like the Eighteenth Georgia before it, the Third Arkansas would later be affectionately called the ``Third Texas'' by the men of the Lone Star State.
December 1, 1862
Spent the early part of December drilling, picketing the Rappahannock, and building breastworks along its position near Fredericksburg. The weather was cold, and picket duty -- without adequate clothing and footwear -- was miserable. To keep warm, the brigade's pickets commandeered as a headquarters the Bernard Mansion, located near the Rappahannock not far from the mouth of Deep Run. Constant vigilance was needed as Burnside's army was poised for attack at any time.
December 6, 1862
Camped Fredericksburg. Drill four or five hours a day. Weather turns very cold with a heavy snow. Men construct 2 and 3 man huts called dog houses, floored with dry leaves.
December 13, 1862
Federal pontoons were laid across the Rappahannock and the Union army was across the river and occupying Fredericksburg. The Federals commenced pillaging and destroying anything of value that could be found in the nearly vacant town.
December 13, 1862
The Battle of Fredericksburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. Yanks are driven back across the river.
December 14, 1862
Shortly after the Federal withdrawal from Fredericksburg, the Confederates reoccupied the pillaged and desolate town. The fields and streets were filled with dead and wounded Federals. Burial parties hastily interred the Federal dead after taking from them those items no longer needed. As the dead were being buried, the citizens of Fredericksburg slowly returned to their ruined town. Many were destitute, and the soldiers of Lee's army generously contributed what food, clothing, and money they could spare to alleviate the civilians' suffering. The Texas Brigade alone contributed $5945 in return for the kindnesses the people of Virginia had bestowed upon them.
December 15, 1862
The coming of cold and inclement weather soon ended the possibility of continued hostilities. The Texas Brigade staked out a camp among hills and pines just north of the Massaponax River, about a mile in the rear of the line they occupied during the battle.
December 20, 1862
The brigade began to build winter quarters of varying types -- wood-framed huts packed with mud and topped with a canvas roofs were typical -- to stave off the inevitable attacks of Old Man Winter.
December 24, 1862
A large, single-story log house was erected in the center of the brigade's campsite. This house served as a theater six days a week and as a church on Sundays. Dan Collins and his renowned Fourth Texas Brass Band were one of the favorite ``little theater'' entertainment groups. A black-face troupe from the Texas Brigade, ``Hood's Minstrels'', took top billing. The band and minstrels combined for a musical extravaganza before a packed house on Christmas Eve, 1862. Gen. Hood attended the theater often, Gen. Longstreet occasionally, and Gen. Lee was reported to be in the audience at least once
January 29, 1863
The regiment was involved in the "Great Snowball Battle"
February - April 1863
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, Dept. Of North Carolina and Southern Virginia
February 17, 1863
The regiment broke winter camp and moved towards Richmond. Departed winter quarters on at 5 p.m. Headed south in the midst of a raging blizzard. The roads were a quagmire of frozen mud and slush, and the streams were swollen to several times their normal size.
February 22, 1863
Passed through Richmond and went into bivouac four miles south on Falling Creek. While camped near the railroad, troops engaged in stealing hats from passengers on passing trains.
February 27, 1863
The brigade was ordered several miles farther south to Falling Creek. The men camped on the south bank of the creek about 100 yards from the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Every day, two officers and two men from Hood's regiments were permitted to visit Richmond. ``Hood's Division,'' wrote one citizen, ``vomiting forth a motley crew into the streets of what was once the pride and boast of Virginia.'' Men who remained in camp often robbed nearby civilians.
March 10, 1863
The Ladies Aid Society of Austin donated their $925.30 profit from a recent tableaux to the brigade. With the inflated prices of goods in the Richmond area, that sum hardly bought a cup of coffee per man.
March 18, 1863
The brigade struck their tents and forced marched northward along the Richmond and Petersburg. A mile below Richmond, Hood foolishly informed the men that they were to rejoin Lee, then cautioned them not to spread the word. Advancing quickly through Richmond, the brigade left the city on the Brook Turnpike and headed toward Ashland. The men marched all day on under threatening skies with tin pans and pots tied to their waists, bread and bacon stuck on the ends of their bayonets [and] anything that could be spiked was bayoneted and held aloft. When the van of the column was within a few miles of Ashland, the orders to join Lee were cancelled. That night, the troops bivouacked along the turnpike and suffered through a cold, driving blizzard.
March 18, 1863
Shook the snow from thin blankets and headed back toward Richmond. As the brigade passed through the city, the men flocked to the bars that lined Broad Street. Gen. Jerome B. Robertson, commanding the Texas Brigade, reacted angrily to his ever-thinning column before being calmed by Gen. Hood himself. Hood reportedly said to Robertson, ``Let 'em go, General – let 'em go; they deserve a little indulgence, and you'll get them back in time for the next battle.''
March 20, 1863
Returned to camp site on Falling Creek
April - May 1863
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, Dept. of Southern Virginia
April 2, 1863
The regiment broke camp and marched to Petersburg.
April 8, 1863
Resumed the march southward. Passed through Jerusalem and crossed the Blackwater River on a pontoon bridge at Franklin, 20 miles west of Suffolk. (A temporary depot was established at Franklin for storage of excessive personal equipment and supplies.) On the march, the men were harassed by Federal cavalry patrols and then by infantry skirmishers as they approached Suffolk.
April 11, 1863
Reached Suffolk and immediately entrenched on the west bank of the Nansemond River, north of the town. Suffolk was well fortified and occupied by 25,000 to 30,000 troops under Federal commander, Maj. Gen. John J. Peck. A flotilla of Union gunboats patrolled the Nansemond. Longstreet's 20,000 men entrenched along a 15-mile line around the town, from the Nansemond in the north to the Great Dismal Swamp in the south. Hood's Division occupied the left or northern wing. Law's Brigade and the Texas Brigade occupied the leftmost positions near the Nansemond. Siege of Suffolk, Virginia begins. Lieut Col. Work commanding
Engaged in action with 3 gunboats on the Nansemond River. Gen. Robertson formed a special battalion of Texas sharpshooters under the command of the popular and charismatic Captain Ike Turner of Co. K, Fifth Texas. At 22 years old, Turner was the youngest captain in the Texas Brigade, and one of the most promising. Turner was subsequently hit by a Federal sharpshooter while standing atop the parapet of Fort Huger, a Confederate fortification on Hill's Point close to the confluence of the Western Branch and the Nansemond.
April 14, 1863
The regiment participated in foraging expedition along southern Virginia and North Carolina border.
April 16, 1863
Entrenched on the west bank of the Nansemond River, north of Suffolk. Gen Longstreet impressed the men of Hood's and Pickett's Divisions into the service of foraging. Men were forced to confiscate both food, wagons, and horses from area farmers. The men had little sympathy for the locals, as many of them had hitherto been profiting handsomely by overcharging both Confederate and Federal troops for their produce.
May 2, 1863
The regiment was called to rejoin main army and started moving back towards Petersburg.
May 3, 1863
Departed Suffolk after dark and marched westward along Backwater road dismantling the pontoon bridge at Franklin to slow the advance of Federal Pursuers. Brigade assumed its usual position as the rear guard
May 4, 1863
In the morning hours, skirmished with the lead elements of the Federal troops in pursuit in the morning hours. Continued march towards Richmond.
May 5, 1863
At Ivor Station on the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad
May - September 1863
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, 1st Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
May 10, 1863
The brigade marched to the vicinity of Somerville and Raccoon fords on the Rapidan River and went into camp. The campsite was about a mile west of the river in a large grove of chestnut trees on a range of low hills. Despite not having tents and few blankets, the men were quite satisfied with their new camp. Received news of General Stonewall Jackson’s death.
May 11, 1863
Camped near Racoon ford and the Rapidan. The brigade enjoyed the rewards of their vast haul of food and supplies from the Suffolk campaign
May 13, 1863
Went into camp in the vicinity of Culpeper close to Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan River.
May 24, 1863
Formal review of the Division held by General Hood. The brigade held a review 600 yards from camp. There were some ladies on horseback on the field. There presence was cheering and grateful. They were all dressed in black, as were more than two-thirds of the women in the Confederacy.
May 28, 1863
Camped near Racoon ford and the Rapidan The moral of the brigade is high and the men are in fine spirits. The men cook four days rations in anticipation of a movement.
May 31, 1863
The regiment broke camp and marched 14 miles southeast toward Fredericksburg. This day, the brigade marched 14 miles though thick dust, went into bivouac in a pine grove just 20 miles from Fredericksburg, stacked arms, and remained on alert through the night.
June 1, 1863
Retraced their steps and returned to camp site near Raccoon Ford.
June 4, 1863
Forded the Rapidan and marched 15 miles toward Culpeper.
June 6, 1863
At 1 pm, the men left their camp near Culpeper and headed northeast in a driving rain toward Rappahannock Station. Slogged through mud until 10 pm, when, exhausted and wet, bivouacked by the side of the road. Bivouacked on the now familiar Cedar Mountain battlefield.. It drizzled all night. The men on the wet ground in a perfect heap; 10,000 to 20,000 men lying promiscuously on the side of a public road. The men are not allowed to make fires.
June 7, 1863
At dawn, the brigade ate a cold and soggy breakfast from their haversacks, formed ranks, and marched back over the muddy roads to their Culpeper campsite. At about 5 o’clock heard heavy cannonade from Stuart’s Cavalry fight. The men were formed and marched to lookout mountain, about three miles from Stephenburg, and lay in line of battle until the fortune of the day was decided and then returned to camp.
June 9, 1863
Some of the barefoot men are issued new shoes. Federal cannonade can be heard across the Rappahannock.
June 13, 1863
Marched five miles to Ceder Run, the scene of Stonewalls Jackson’s battle last August. . Some of the men took to opportunity to walk over the battlefield. There were a great many unburied skeletons, presenting a very ghastly appearance. There were 49 skulls in one little ditch the bodies were torn to pieces and scattered about, having been taken from their shallow graves by hogs and other animals. A hand or foot might be seen protruding from the earth here and there.
June 15, 1863
The regiment left the vicinity of Cedar Mountain and headed north up the east side of the Blue Ridge toward Ashby's Gap. The brigade marched north from Cedar Run toward Winchester through Ashby's Gap. It was a hot, sticky march of 25 miles that day to Gaines' Cross Roads, under a burning sun and brazen sky. Some. The last ten miles of the march was literally lines with some 500 men who fell by the wayside as victims of exhaustion and sunstroke, several died. This was occasioned by being overheated and drinking cold water in immoderate quantities.
June 16, 1863
The brigade marched another 20 miles to Markham Station on the Manassas Gap Railroad. Many fell by the wayside. Bivouaced near Markham station in a filed of clover. It was a very cold night.
June 17, 1863
The march continued for another 14 miles up hill and down dale through a beautiful mountainous region and bivouacked in a splendid grove of oak and hickory about one mile from Upperville
June 18, 1863
Marched 10 miles to the Shenandoah. The brigade passed through the Blue Ridge at Ashby's Gap, crossed to the west side of the Shenandoah, and bivouacked near Millwood. The Shenandoah river was deep and cold, and the men had to carry their rifles and cartridge boxes above their heads during the precarious crossing..A tremendous rain drenched the men before night.
June 19, 1863
The brigade marched down the river 10 miles over a very muddy road to Berryville, crossed to the east side of the Shenandoah, and occupied a position on a mountain near Snicker's Gap after passing through it. At sunset the men experienced hardest storm of wind and rain they had ever saw.
June 20, 1863
Rained again in the morning. The brigade marched a half a mile from camp and erected a stone fence about a half a mile long in just two hours. In the afternoon, recrossed the river and camped on the north side four miles from Berryville.
June 23, 1863
The brigade marched 10 miles down the river and three miles out from it through Millwood, and camped two miles from it within four miles of Berryville on the regular turnpike, which passes through Martinsburg.
June 26, 1863
Reached Williamsport in the rain about noon. The brigade crossed the Potomac into Maryland with the pontoon bridge clogged with artillery and wagons, most the the men removed their clothes, held their guns and accoutrements aloft, and invaded the north in a semi-naked state to the patriotic tunes of the brigade's regimental bands. After the whole brigade had crossed the river, Gen. Robertson marched the men a short distance into Maryland, had them stack rifles, and permitted them to cook their rations. During this break for lunch, each man was rewarded by Gen. Hood with one gill of whiskey from several barrels recently confiscated near Hagerstown. After much drinking when some semblance of order was restored, the brigade straggled across the narrow neck of Maryland to the vicinity of Greencastle, Pennsylvania. General Hood himself precipitated some of the most intense foraging yet done by the brigade when he reportedly said to his headquarters’ guard, ``Boys, you are now on the enemy's soil; stack your arms and pretty much do as you please...stay close by and prevent any stranger from coming here to kill me, and establish your camp here by my tent."
June 27, 1863
Resumed their march north, passing through Greencastle up the Cumberland Valley toward Chambersburg. The country was beautiful, the roads macadamized, and the buildings impressive. There was not seen a barn in the last three days but what was more substantially and carefully built and fitted out than any house...in the country of Texas. The barns were positively more tastily bult than two-thirds of the houses in Waco. As the men passed through the streets of Chambersburg, many of the townsfolk wore patriotic banners and made derisive remarks about the ragged Confederates. One woman wore a large American flag draped across her ample bosom until a Texan hollered out, ``Take care, Madam, for Hood's boys are great at storming breastworks when the Yankee colors is on them!'' The women beat a ``precipitate retreat.'' After passing through Chambersburg, the Texas Brigade camped in a grove of trees about a mile north of town. Passed through Greencastle with the band playing "Dixie".
June 29, 1863
The daylight hours were devoted exclusively to gormandizing until at 3 p.m. marching orders came and leaving more provisions than carried, the men moved lazily...into line'' -- bound for Cashtown and Gettysburg. The men reached Fayetteville that evening and there went into bivouac at about dusk.